Kentucky Heritage Council
Kentucky Historic Preservation Review Board today approves 15 sites for National Register listing; nominations now go to the National Park Service for final approval
FRANKFORT, Ky. – Fifteen nominations to the National Register of Historic Places were approved today during a meeting of the Kentucky Historic Preservation Review Board at Metro Development Center in Louisville.
Three Louisville nominations focused on modern architecture, including the Leslie V. Abbott House, the Pavilion at Hogan’s Fountain and University of Louisville Library/Schneider Hall. Others from the Metro area included the original headquarters of the Filson Club and Edward Kurfee’s Paint Company. Also approved were the Thomas Krahwinkel Farmhouse, Daviess County; South Frankfort Neighborhood Historic District (boundary increase) and Knight-Taylor-Hockensmith House, Franklin County; Lincoln-Grant School, Covington; Little Creek Pictographs, Letcher County; Coca-Cola Bottling Plant, Paducah; Great Saltpetre Cave, Rockcastle County; Sadieville Historic District; Wayne County High School; and Wolfe County High School.
The Kentucky Historic Preservation Review Board is charged with evaluating eligibility criteria for National Register nominations from Kentucky prior to their submission to the National Park Service (NPS), which administers the program in partnership with state historic preservation offices, including the Kentucky Heritage Council. Approved nominations will be forwarded to the NPS, an agency of the U.S. Department of the Interior, for final determination of eligibility, a process that will take several weeks.
The National Register is the nation’s official list of historic and archaeological resources deemed worthy of preservation. With nearly 3,300 listings, Kentucky has the fourth-highest number in the nation – following New York, Massachusetts and Ohio. Listing can be applied to buildings, objects, structures, districts and archaeological sites, and proposed sites must be significant in architecture, engineering, American history or culture, or possess a special role in the development of our country.
National Register status does not affect property ownership rights but does provide a measure of protection against adverse impacts from federally funded projects. Owners of National Register properties may qualify for federal or state tax credits for certified rehabilitation of these properties or by making a charitable contribution of a preservation easement. For more, see www.heritage.ky.gov.
Complete nominations with photos are available at www.heritage.ky.gov/natreg/. A summary of each nomination follows.
# # #
An agency of the Kentucky Tourism, Arts and Heritage Cabinet, the Kentucky Heritage Council / State Historic Preservation Office is responsible for the identification, protection and preservation of prehistoric resources and historic buildings, sites and cultural resources throughout the Commonwealth, in partnership with other state and federal agencies, local communities and interested citizens. This mission is integral to making communities more livable and has a far-ranging impact on issues as diverse as economic development, jobs creation, affordable housing, tourism, community revitalization, environmental conservation and quality of life. www.heritage.ky.gov
Thomas Krahwinkel Farmhouse, 10501 Highway 60 W., Owensboro vicinity; authored by Jaime L. Destefano, principal architectural historian, History, Inc. – Constructed in 1915, this farmhouse is a 1½-story Colonial Revival brick structure featuring a T-plan with multiple gambrel roofs. It is located in rural Daviess County. According to the author, “As early as the 1950s, the house was considered a local landmark due to its style and size relative to other nearby farmhouses. In addition to aesthetics of style, the house also points toward the farming success of its original owner.” It is being nominated under National Register Criterion C, property that embodies the distinctive characteristics of a type, period, or method of construction; represents the work of a master; possesses high artistic values; or represents a significant and distinguishable entity, such a historic district, whose components lack individual distinction. It is being interpreted as significant within the context “Dutch Colonial Revival Architecture in Daviess County.”
South Frankfort Neighborhood Historic District (boundary increase); authored by Janie-Rice Brother, senior architectural historian, Kentucky Archaeological Survey – The South Frankfort Neighborhood Historic District was originally listed on the National Register in 1983, with a period of significance from 1833-1925, significant for architecture and politics/government. The original author noted the “wide variety of architectural styles and building types that are representative of life in Frankfort during the late 19th and early 20th centuries.” This new nomination continues the theme of diversity – which characterizes the neighborhood, giving it its charm, identity and significance – and proposes to expand the period of significance from 1833-1963 in exploring architectural trends in later decades. According to the author, “It is a neighborhood in which the state’s governor and millionaires live just blocks away from some of Frankfort’s poorest and least powerful citizens. The housing forms, of course, reveal these differences.” The acreage added to the district would enlarge it from 183 to 259 acres, and bring it to a total 734 contributing buildings. It is being nominated under Criterion C.
Knight-Taylor-Hockensmith House, 4350 Peaks Mill Road, Frankfort; authored by Janie-Rice Brother – This nomination encompasses a pair of houses located in a rural setting along Elkhorn Creek in Franklin County. The main house was built in three distinct stages between 1850 and 1890; it is being interpreted for its architectural values, following patterns of building and rebuilding on other farms throughout the county. The secondary house reveals information about house renovation. The site is being nominated under Criterion C, locally significant for providing good examples of a common sequence of housing changes that defined residential architecture on non-elite farms through most of the 19th century, interpreted within the context “Agriculture and Rural Life in Franklin County, 1800-1900.” According to the author, “The journey of the house and secondary dwelling, from log pen to saddlebag, is a story that is seldom told, though was common on the landscape.”
Leslie V. Abbott House, 2401 Newburg Road, Louisville; authored by Annelise Gray – The Abbott House is a familiar landmark at the corner of Trevilian Way and Newburg Road. It was designed by local architect Leslie V. Abbott Jr. and built as his private residence. According to the author, the house “displays Art Moderne or Streamline Modern styling with its wide overhanging eave, decorative porch railings, non-weight-bearing exterior porch columns and Art Deco glass-paneled front doors and garage door. Apart from the enclosure of the porch on the upper east elevation in the 1980s, the house remains nearly unchanged from its construction in 1949.” The house is being interpreted for its design values under Criterion C, evaluated within the context “Streamline Modern in Louisville.” Abbott was best known for his work in designing functional constructions, such as local distilleries and Parkway Field. His house remains a functioning example of a locally rare type of residential architecture.
Filson Club, 118 W. Breckinridge St., Louisville; authored by Joseph C. Pierson, Pinion Advisors – The Filson Club had its original home in two Victorian-era brick residences that were combined to create a Federalesque-style building. The original houses were built between 1870 and 1890 and the two were combined into a unit in 1929 to serve as the club’s headquarters. According to the author, “while the design of the front facade is that of a textbook low-budget Federal-style building, the many exterior details suggest a Victorian-era building.” The property functioned as a historical society until 1986, when the club moved to its current location at 1310 S. Third St. After the move, this original site became a car dealership. It is being nominated under National Register Criterion A, associated with events that have made a significant contribution to the broad patters of our nation’s history, significant within the context “Private Historical Societies and Libraries in Louisville, 1865-1965.”
Edward Kurfee’s Paint Company, 201 E. Market St., Louisville; authored by Cash Moter, Joseph & Joseph Architects – This four-story brick, concrete and limestone building features a formal façade fronting Market Street, which presents restrained Beaux-Arts detailing. The west, north and east elevations are primarily utilitarian with rectangular steel windows and very little decoration. Seventeen years after the paint company's founding, Joseph & Joseph Architects was commissioned to design the first of two phases for a production facility at the corner of Brook and Market Street. The original structure was built in 1915 and expanded in 1928 to its current form. It is being nominated under National Register Criterion C, significant within the historic context of the “Beaux Arts Style in Louisville, 1900-1930”. According to the author, this architectural style was originally presented in a “grandiose nature,” becoming more modest with time. This structure is a “skillful example of a building composed with classical proportions, in a restrained manner, and incorporated into mixed industrial, commercial and office uses.”
Pavilion at Hogan’s Fountain, Cherokee Park; authored by Anna Maas and Tammy Madigan, Save Hogan’s Fountain Teepee Pavilion – Hogan’s Fountain Pavilion is a recreational structure within Cherokee Park, designated a local landmark by the Metro Historic Landmarks and Preservation Districts Commission in 2012. Cherokee Park and other associated parks and parkways were listed on the National Register in 1982 under the title “Olmsted Park System of Louisville.” The pavilion was designed in 1964 by E.J. Schickli Jr. and built the following year. According to the authors, “the structure is a Mid-Century Modern design which attempts to express local culture and heritage through the pavilion’s form, vaguely reminiscent of a Native American dwelling… The use of natural materials, such as exposed wood elements and stone-veneered buttresses, gives the shelter a traditional look that is intended to be harmonious with the surrounding park landscape.” It is being nominated under Criterion C, architecturally significant on a local level within the context “Modernist Architecture in Jefferson County, 1945-1965.”
University of Louisville Library, Uof L campus; authored by Gail R. Gilbert, UofL Art Library director – Known today as Schneider Hall, this building is located on the Belknap Campus and was constructed in 1956. Although 25 buildings on this campus were added to the National Register in June 1976, the UofL Library was located outside the district. But according to the author, “Schneider Hall embodies the distinctive characteristics of mid-century modern architecture: large open spaces, minimal ornamentation and use of modern materials. On a campus of buildings rendered in Georgian and vaguer revival styles, Schneider Hall stands out.” This nomination interprets the building for its architectural values, and proposes individual listing under Criterion C, significant for its display of Mid-Century Modern architecture, an important part of Louisville’s post-World War II architectural landscape and within the context “Modern Architecture in Louisville, 1945-1965.”
Lincoln-Grant School, 824 Greenup St., Covington; authored by Matthew Yagle, Northern Kentucky University – The Lincoln Grant School is situated within the historic working class East Side neighborhood of Covington and is included within the Emery-Price Historic District, listed on the National Register in 1986. The three-story building of buff brick sits atop a partially raised basement level of poured concrete; Art Deco architectural styling is expressed in its concrete detailing. According to the author, “Lincoln-Grant was not representative of the normal quality seen in schools built for blacks during the years of segregated education… It is one of few facilities in all of Kentucky that attempted to match the quality found in contemporary urban schools for whites.” Its period of significance spans from 1931, when the school was constructed, through 1966, when integrated schooling was implemented locally. For this nomination, it is being interpreted for its identity as a school for African Americans during the era of racial segregation, proposed to meet National Register Criterion A and evaluated within the historic context “African American Education in Kenton County, 1918-1961.”
Little Creek Pictographs – Authored by Dr. Kim A. McBride with the Kentucky Archaeological Survey (this property’s site information is restricted) – The Little Creek Pictographs consist of five deer and one deer tail, vertical lines, and an anthropomorphic figure, all in red pigment, located on a large sandstone boulder in a wooded area. All of the pictographs are oriented vertically and have a high degree of integrity. According to the author, “Both they and their setting are little changed from when they were painted by Native Americans, mostly likely sometime between 1,000 and 1,600 A.D… Since only six pictograph sites are known in Kentucky, every site adds crucial information on this Native American rock art form.” The Little Creek Pictographs are being proposed as significant at the state level, meeting Criterion D, for their ability to yield information important in prehistory or history, specifically for the Late Woodland to Late Prehistoric Period. They are being evaluated within the context of the 1988 multi-property National Register nomination, “Prehistoric Rock Art Sites in Kentucky,” by Jimmy A. Railey.
Coca-Cola Bottling Plant, 3141 Broadway, Paducah; authored by Melinda Winchester – The Paducah Coca-Cola Bottling Plant has changed very little since its construction. Designed in 1939 by S. Lester Daly of Metropolis, Ill., this two-story red brick structure is described by its maker as a modernistic design with nine facades and only four right angles in the whole building due to the odd shape of the triangular lot on which it was built. The exterior is embellished with decorative relief carvings of Coca-Cola bottles in Bedford, Ind. limestone, and the name “Coca-Cola” is carved in limestone panels on the west, south and north elevations. This plant served as the headquarters for the Carson family’s expanding empire of bottling plants, an early local instance of franchising by a national brand, and is one of three examples of Art Deco commercial architecture in Paducah. According to the author, “The Coca-Cola Bottling Plant building is not only one of Paducah’s long-standing industries, but is also Paducah’s finest example of the Art Deco Design.” It is being nominated under Criteria A and C, in the areas of commerce and architecture, and explored within the context “History of Beverage and Bottling in Paducah, 1880-1986” and “Art Deco Architecture in Paducah, 1939-1949.”
Great Saltpetre Cave, 237 Saltpetre Cave Road, Mount Vernon vicinity; authored by Neena Jud, Saltpetre Cave Preserve Management Committee – The Great Saltpetre Cave Preserve is a 306-acre tract of land along Crooked Creek near Mount Vernon that contains the primary entrance to Great Saltpetre Cave as well as a few other smaller caves. The Great Saltpetre Cave was a primary site for the production of saltpeter between 1799 and 1815. Between 1938 and 1980, it was operated as a commercial tourist site with a campground. The area proposed for listing includes approximately 54 acres. The cave is proposed as eligible under Criterion A, as an important site for extraction of saltpeter, a necessary ingredient of gunpowder, and later for its importance as a significant tourist attraction. It is being evaluated within the historic context “Use of Caves in Kentucky in the Production of Saltpeter, 1795-1815.”
Sadieville Historic District; authored by Scott Wienhusen, University of Louisville Public History Program, assisted by Professor Daniel Vivian, Director of Public History – The Sadieville Historic District encompasses the historical core of the town, comprising two main areas and including 49 contributing and 23 noncontributing buildings. It is proposed as locally significant under Criterion A, important for its role as a departure point for African American migration to Kansas during the late 1870s; and Criterion C, as an example of a post-Civil War railroad town and rural commercial center. In March 1878, about 150 people from Scott County boarded trains bound for the Great Plains. African Americans from Scott and Fayette counties formed the nucleus of Nicodeumus, described by the author as “the most successful and best known of the black towns established during the era… The historic district retains integrity from the circa 1880-1962 period and continues to reflect the history of commercial development and race relations in post-Civil War era Kentucky.” The district will be examined within the context “African Americans in Northern Scott County, 1865-1960.” In the 1870s, construction of the Cincinnati Southern Railway connected Scott County with urban markets centered in Cincinnati and Knoxville. Sadieville developed as construction crews moved through the area, and by the mid-1880s there were a handful of businesses and amenities commonly associated with larger towns. The author notes the town contains “an impressive collection of late Victorian-era and early 20th century commercial and domestic architecture,” and in this context the district’s historic significance will be evaluated within “Railroad Development in the Kentucky Bluegrass, 1865-1960.”
Wayne County High School, 80 A.J. Lloyd Circle, Monticello; authored by Roger Guffey – Erected in 1939-1941 using funds provided by the Works Progress Administration, Wayne County High School is located about a mile from the commercial square of Monticello, the county seat. It is being nominated under National Register Criterion A, significant for its role in local education, within the context “Education in Wayne County, 1909-1965.” According to the author, “The school is important for reshaping the delivery of public education in the county… Previously, education had occurred in four separate high schools scattered throughout the county… The decision to build a single high school for the whole county, in Monticello, helped solidify the town’s county seat status. Also at this time, Wayne County was transitioning from an insular rural society into one aware of possibilities beyond its borders—for travel and job opportunities. The educational advantages given by a consolidated high school provided students with an ability to conceive of life away from Wayne County, and an education upon which to begin that journey.”
Wolfe County High School, 166 Wolfe County Elementary School Road, Campton; authored by Bruce M. Carter, AU Associates, Lexington –Wolfe County High School was constructed from 1937-1942 with locally-quarried sandstone. The building displays characteristics of the Art Moderne style, evident in other Works Progress Administration buildings, and the building’s site served as a seat of education in Wolfe County for more than a century. Its prominent location on a high hill overlooking the county seat of Campton makes it a significant landmark and symbol within the community. According to the author, “Any living resident educated in Wolfe County likely was educated on the site. The building’s WPA construction by teams of local laborers and locally sourced materials grant the Wolfe County High School the distinction of being built by and from the very rock of the community.” It is proposed for listing under Criterion A, significant for its role in local education, and evaluated within the context “Education in Wolfe County, 1896-2005."